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Book received: Saturn and Melancholy

3 July 2020
Saturn and Melancholy

Saturn and Melancholy

Studies in the History of Natural Philosophy, Religion, and Art
With a preface by Bill Sherman
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Foreword
Bill Sherman / ix

Editors’ Note and Acknowledgments / xi
Raymond Klibansky’s Preface to the German Edition (1990) / xiii
Preface to the First English Edition (1964) / xxix
List of Illustrations / xxxi
List of Abbreviations / xxxvii

Part I The Notion of Melancholy and Its Historical Development

Chapter I Melancholy in the Physiological Literature of the Ancients
1 The Doctrine of the Four Humours / 3
2 The Notion of Melancholy as Revolutionised by the Peripatetics: Problem XXX, 1 / 15
3 The Development of the Notion of Melancholy after the Peripatetics / 41
(a) Melancholy as an Illness / 42
i The Stoic View / 43
ii Asclepiades, Archigenes and Soranus / 44
iii Rufus of Ephesus / 48
(b) Melancholy in the System of the Four Temperaments / 55

Chapter II Melancholy in Medieval Medicine, Science and Philosophy
1 The Survival of the Aristotelian Notion of Melancholy in the Middle Ages / 67
2 Melancholy as an Illness / 75
(a) Melancholy in Theology and Moral Philosophy / 75
(b) Melancholy in Scholastic Medicine / 82
i Early Arabic Medicine and its Translation to the West: Constantinus Africanus / 82
ii Attempts at Systematisation on the Basis of Humoral Pathology: Avicenna’s Doctrine of the Four Forms / 86
iii Attempts at Classification on a Psychological Basis: Averroes and Scholastic Medicine / 90
3 Melancholy in the System of the Four Temperaments / 97
(a) The Galenic Tradition, particularly among the Arabians and Constantinus Africanus / 98
(b) The Revival of Humoral Characterology in Western Natural Philosophy during the First Half of the Twelfth Century / 102
(c) The Popular Doctrine of Temperaments in the Later Middle Ages, and its Effects / 112

Part II Saturn, Star of Melancholy

Chapter I Saturn in the Literary Tradition
1 The Notion of Saturn in Arabic Astrology / 127
2 Saturn in Ancient Literature / 133
(a) Kronos-Saturn as a Mythical Figure / 133
(b) Kronos-Saturn as a Planet / 136
i Kronos-Saturn in Ancient Astrophysics / 137
ii Kronos-Saturn in Ancient Astrology / 140
iii Kronos-Saturn in Neoplatonism / 151
3 Saturn in Medieval Literature / 159
(a) Saturn in the Controversies of the Church Fathers / 159
(b) Saturn in Later Medieval Speculation / 165
i Saturn in Moral Theology / 165
ii Saturn in Medieval Mythography / 170
iii Saturn in Medieval Astrology: Astrological Elements adopted by Scholastic Natural Philosophy / 170

Chapter II Saturn in the Pictorial Tradition
1 Saturn in Ancient Art and the Survival of the Traditional Representation in Medieval Art / 196
2 Text-illustration and Oriental Influence / 200
3 The Picture of Saturn and his Children / 204
4 Saturn in Mythographical Illustrations of the Late Middle Ages / 207
5 Saturn in Humanism / 209

Part III “Poetic Melancholy” and “Melancholia Generosa”

Chapter I Poetic Melancholy in post-Medieval Poetry
1 Melancholy as a Subjective Mood in Poetry / 217
2 “Dame Merencolye” / 220
3 Melancholy as Heightened Self-awareness / 228

Chapter II “Melancholia Generosa”
The Glorification of Melancholy and Saturn in Florentine Neoplatonism and the Birth of the Modern Notion of Genius / 241
1 The Intellectual Background of the New Doctrine / 241
2 Marsilio Ficino / 254

Part IV Dürer

Chapter I Melancholy in Conrad Celtes
Dürer’s Woodcut on the Title-page of Celtes’s “Quattuor Libri Amorum” The Doctrine of Temperaments in Dürer’s Writings / 277

Chapter II The Engraving “Melencolia I”
1 The Historical Background of “Melencolia I” / 284
(a) Traditional Motifs / 284
i The Purse and the Keys / 284
ii The Motif of the Drooping Head / 286
iii The Clenched Fist and the Black Face / 289
(b) Traditional Images in the Composition of the Engraving / 290
i Illustrations of Disease / 290
ii Picture Cycles of the Four Temperaments. I: Descriptive Single Figures (the Four Temperaments and the Four Ages of Man) – II: Dramatic Groups: Temperaments and Vices / 291
iii Portraits of the Liberal Arts / 306
2 The New Meaning of “Melencolia I” / 317
(a) The New Form of Expression / 317
(b) The New Notional Content / 321
i Symbols of Saturn or Melancholy / 322
ii Geometrical Symbols / 327
iii Symbols of Saturn or of Melancholy combined with Geometrical Symbols: in Relation to Mythology and Astrology-in Relation to Epistemology and Psychology / 331
iv Art and Practice / 339
(c) The Significance of “Melencolia I” / 345
(d) The “Four Apostles” / 366

Chapter III The Artistic Legacy of “Melencolia I”
1 Portraits of Melancholy as a Single Female Figure in the Manner of Dürer / 376
2 Typical Portraits of Melancholy in Late Medieval Almanacs / 393
3 Melancholy in Portraits of Saturn or of his Children / 397

Appendices
I The Polyhedron in “Melencolia I” / 400
II The Meaning of the Engraving B70 / 403
III Lucas Cranach’s Depictions of Melancholy (1990) / 407

Additions to the Notes from the 1990 German Edition, with Supplemental Translations of Quotations / 413
Supplemental Bibliography for the German Edition (1990) / 429
Addendum on the Text History of [Ps-] Aristotle, Problem XXX, 1 / 443

Afterword: The Long and Complex History of a Warburgian Publication Project / 449

Index of Manuscripts / 467
Index (1964) / 469
Illustrations / 491

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